Question: One of my clients insists that not a single molecule of cream penetrates below the basal membrane. And therefore we do not have the right to say that our active substances affect DNA molecules, restoration of collagen fibres, or the quality and speed of skin reproduction.

Please tell me how our substances actually penetrate into the deepest layers, and if the cream molecules are so big, then how can Novaftem-O2 penetrate capillaries and saturate the skin with oxygen from the inside?

The Expert's Answer: Certainly, if all the cream penetrated into the skin, it wouldn't serve its primary function: protection. But there are many methods and mechanisms that can help skin cells react to the effects of active substances and deliver them to the basal membrane and deeper. Here are some of them:

1. Molecules less than 150,000 Daltons in size can penetrate into the skin. So peptides and other active substances with that molecular mass can penetrate cells fairly easily.

2. Microemulsion also bypasses the epidermal lipid barrier and penetrates deep into the epidermis.

3. There are special transepidermal transport systems (delivery of beneficial substances): liposomes and micropatches. Liposomes are closed microbubbles with useful substances embedded within. They pass through the intercellular epidermal lipid layer, are exposed to enzymes, and the active substances begin working.

Micropatches are thin layers of algae with active substances between them. Enzymes gradually dissolve them and allow for the diffusion (penetration) of the active substances.

4. The diffusion method: on contact with skin, Aquaftem releases dissolved oxygen into the skin, which penetrates into the deepest layers. It's the skin's breathing function! This is the usual way that oxygen penetrates the skin from the air (3-5% of the total amount of oxygen entering the body).

5. Impact on intercellular communication. Sometimes it's not necessary for a substance to penetrate the skin; working on the skin receptors and stimulation of the process of discarding sirtuin proteins and other mediators responsible for information about the skin's condition is enough. It's like a "wireless telegraph" for your skin. And after that, we can start to include a variety of biochemical reactions that are responsible for synthesis, etc. This, for example, is how the lipopeptide Survicode B in our 40+ and 50+ anti-age series works.

6. Modern biotechnology allows us to synthesize peptides, which, like a key to a padlock, match the special receptors of the cell membrane. So, that the peptide can penetrate the deep layers of the skin, it is converted to a lipopeptide, as a rule. By becoming fat-soluble, it can pass through the epidermal lipid layer and link up with cell membrane receptors, including the synthesis process (collagen, for example).

7. Activating microcirculation. There are many ways to do this. For example, it is sufficient to affect the skin's thermoreceptors. But this technique is only suitable for anti-cellulite products.

And we use substances that activate the release of a special mediator, which regulates circulation in our body. This mediator is nitrogen oxide (NO). Are you surprised that "Nitroglycerin" tablets, placed under the tongue, will intensify blood vessel dilation? Or that "Viagra" pills expand the blood vessels of the reproductive organs? This happens because the release of nitrogen oxide is stimulated in some part of the body. And you don't have to put nitroglycerin right on your heart. It's enough to put the tablets under your tongue.

Our cosmetic compounds contain a substance from Japanese algae: DST-H. It affects special enzymes and causes the release of nitrogen oxide in the skin, stimulating local microcirculation. Delivery of nutrients is thereby improved, and detoxification begins.

To sum up: we are experts on skin biochemistry and physiology, and we work with many laboratories worldwide, including pharmaceutical ones. We work with the top universities in the world, whose research shows: if there is a well-defined task, biotechnology can solve it. Everything that we assert is backed up by scientific research and clinical trials.